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I started my academic career in 2000 at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb in language research from a perspective of information sciences and computational linguistics. In 2005 I moved to the Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics where I started working on corpus linguistics and creation of the Croatian Language Corpus (http://riznica2.ihjj.hr/). Ever since the high school education, I felt passion for historical lexicography, ancient scripts, and old Croatian orthographies (such as the Zagreb philological school's spelling standard). The professional career in sociolinguistics started in 2008 with a focus in 0rthogrAphy since then. The complex language-identity relations among the speakers of the South Slavonic languages, in the first place, and other European languages that underwent spelling reforms/changes in the 1990s and onwards (e.g. Czech, Dutch, French, German, and Portuguese), are my core motivations for studies. I believe researching orthography can shed valuable light on its role in the (de-)construction of nations and regions.
My PhD thesis (2015) described some of the contemporary challenges in orthographic codification from three major perspectives: speakers, orthographers, and language policy makers.
Related to orthography research, I am interested in development of literacy through writing from Antiquity to today. There is an inflation of knowledge and skills throughout history required to call ourselves as 'literate people'. The link between literacy and orthography is another point of research interest of mine. This is related to my long-term surveys of pupils' and students' level of literacy in Croatian. I have been surveying first year students of Zagreb University of Applied Sciences with the same set of questions for 8 years now. After 15 years of continuous tracking, I believe this will produce interesting conclusions of changes in students' writing and level of adoption of the changed orthographic rules that had happened in the meantime.
My main research interests are:
I am open for networking with other colleagues who share similar interests.
Specializations (workshops, seminars, summer schools, etc., excluding webinars)
Polytechnic courses taught
Other courses taught
Lectures, presentations, talks and posters (other than published papers)
Funded research project participations
Other project participations
Awards and acknowledgments
Committees, councils, working groups
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2018. Pravopisna aplikacija Školske knjige [Spelling mobile application of Školska knjiga]. Software review. To be printed in: Jezik. Časopis za kulturu hrvatskoga književnog jezika. ISSN 0021-6925. Zagreb: Hrvatsko filološko društvo
Kosem, Iztok; Lew, Robert; Müller-Spitzer, Carolin; Wolfer, Sascha et al. 2019. The image of the monolingual dictionary across Europe. Results of the European survey of dictionary use and culture. To be printed in: International Journal of Lexicography. Oxford University Press
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2018. Orthographic Lexicography and Its Aspects in Online Dictionary Portals. Preprints 2018, 2018090178 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201809.0178.v1)
This paper is based on my presentation at COST ENeL Workgroup 1 meeting in Barcelona, 31 March – 1 April 2016. (http://www.elexicography.eu/working-groups/working-group-1/wg1-meetings/wg1-barcelona-2016/). I presented my work during the COST Action Short-term scientific mission in the Netherlands in 2015.
This short paper raises and answers a question related to orthographic lexicography in general and its reference to efforts in making contemporary dictionary portals. As orthographic dictionaries have not yet been researched as a specialized lexicographic variety, part of their metalexicographic description in those European languages that have online normative orthographic dictionaries is presented.
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2018. Orthographies in Grammar Books – Antiquity and Humanism. Preprints 2018, 2018070565 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201807.0565.v1).
This paper researches the as yet unstudied topic of orthographic content in antique, medieval, and Renaissance grammar books in European languages, as part of a wider research of the origin of orthographic standards in European languages. As a central place for teachings about language, grammar books contained orthographic instructions from the very beginning, and such practice continued also in later periods. Understanding the function, content, and orthographic forms in the past provides for a better description of the nature of the orthographic standard in the present. The evolution of grammatographic practice clearly shows the continuity of development of orthographic content from a constituent of grammar studies through the littera unit gradually to an independent unit, then into annexed orthographic sections, and later into separate orthographic manuals. 5 antique, 22 Latin, and 17 vernacular grammars were analyzed, describing 19 European languages. The research methodology is based on distinguishing orthographic content in the narrower sense (grapheme to meaning) from the broader sense (grapheme to phoneme). In this way, the function of orthographic description was established separately from the study of spelling. As for the traditional description of orthographic content in the broader sense in old grammar books, it is shown that orthographic content can also be studied within the grammatographic framework of a specific period, similar to the description of morphology or syntax. We found that 4 out of 5 antique, 11 out of 22 Latin and 5 out of 17 vernacular grammarians describe orthographic content in the narrower sense.
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2018. Orthographic Literacy as Methodological Guideline for Orthographic Standardization. Preprints 2018, 2018070564 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201807.0564.v1).
This paper discusses the impact of orthographic manuals on the state of literacy, i.e. the relation of orthographic literacy and orthographic standardisation. The established hypothesis claims that frequent changes of orthographic rules during the pupils’ primary and secondary education do not have any considerable impact on their orthographic habits. In other words, the quantity of orthographic mistakes observed during a longer period of time and in conditions of changed orthographic rules would not show significant oscillations in their spelling. In order to confirm the hypothesis, a questionnaire was conducted encompassing 41 tests among 526 students of a technical study programme during four consecutive academic years, pursuant to whose results a writing uniformity index and a categorisation of orthographic controversy into six classes is established. The Croatian language has been selected for the observation due to multiple orthographic changes in the last 30 years in the three major orthographic points: writing of the covered r, writing of d and t in front of c and č in declination of words ending in -tak, -tac, -dak and -dac, and the issue of compound or separate spelling of the negation particle and the auxiliary biti (to be). Moreover, the paper methodologically and quantitatively establishes criteria according to which the second established hypothesis on evolutionary orthographic literacy can be confirmed. The conclusions are expected to be able to contribute to the better understanding of orthographic planning and application of orthographic norms in schools.
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2018. Orthographies in Grammar Books – Rationalism and Enlightenment. Preprints 2018, 2018070585 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201807.0585.v1).
This work describes the orthographic content in grammars of European languages in the 17th and the 18th century. Reviewed were 17 grammars for 7 languages in Rationalism, 15 grammars for 11 languages in the Enlightenment, and 12 Latin orthographies. As for orthographic entities in the broader sense (orthography as a way to write down speech), our starting point were orthographic grapheme units which are contrasted to meaning (i.e. orthographic entities in the narrower sense, e.g. punctuation). Contrary to the traditional description which focused on spelling, this work observes the beginnings of orthographic content in grammars and its development into an autonomous language phenomenon and norm. The strong connection between orthography and grammar is described and it is established that, from the diachronic point of view, orthography cannot be integrally reviewed without studying the grammatical teachings.
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2016. Dijakronijska gledišta o pisanju navodnika i polunavodnika u hrvatskome jeziku [Diachronic aspects of writing of single and double quotation marks in the Croatian language]. In: Filologija 66(2016), ISSN 0449-363X, https://doi.org/10.21857/mnlqgcj7py, pp. 59–101
A paper on diachronic aspects of writing of single and double quotation marks is the first part of the study on quotation characters in the Croatian language. Based on a search of old manuscripts and printed texts written in the Croatian language, primary codification books and secondary literature sources, we tried to present the usage and meaning of the quotation marks. The theoretical framework under which this research has been conducted can be attributed as the grapholinguistic or orthographologic one. The aim was to draw conclusions about their historical development and relationship with today’s standardization practice.
It resulted in 11 various quotation mark pairs, of which six are hapax legomena, and the remaining five of which are present in modern Croatian orthographic handbooks. Although many consider „quotation marks” traditional Croatian quotation mark forms, they are only present after Boranić (1930), who ended 150 years of the continuous use of „quotation marks“ in Croatian orthographic books. As opposed to the first quotation marks, which appeared in Šilobod's Aritmetika (1758), single quotation marks came much later with Kušar (1889). Eight single quotation mark pairs were found, of which two are hapax legomena, with six total meanings.
Twenty-one meanings of quotation marks are described and categorized, of which eighteen are used in Croatian orthographic books from Kratki navuk and Uputjenje (both from 1779) to the Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics' 2013 Hrvatski pravopis. Croatian orthographic books describe rules for eleven of them in a number of meanings ranging from four (Tutavac and Anić-Silić) to ten (Cipra-Klaić).
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2016. Sinkronijska gledišta o pisanju i normiranju navodnika i polunavodnika u hrvatskome jeziku [Synchronic aspects of writing and standardization of single and double quotation marks in the Croatian language]. In: Jezik. Časopis za kulturu hrvatskoga književnog jezika 63(2–3). ISSN 0021-6925. Zagreb: Hrvatsko filološko društvo, pp. 56–76
A paper on synchronic aspects of writing and standardization of single and double quotation marks is the second and final part of the study on quotation characters in the Croatian language.
Quotation marks are examined from three research perspectives: the orthographic and sociolinguistic perspective, the linguographic and computational perspective, as well as the terminological perspective.
Of the thirty characters in five punctuation subcategories with the feature of a quotation mark in the Unicode system, fifteen of them are Latinic (8 quotation marks and 7 single quotation marks). Croatian orthographic books use six of eight quotation marks („ “ » « ” " plus two graphemes that do not exist in Unicode) and all seven single quotation marks (‚ ‛ ’ ‘ ' › ‹ plus one other non-standardized grapheme).
Two models of nomenclature for the terminological norming of all existing quotation marks are suggested (not only for signs that have been used or are still used in the Croatian language): one that is founded in a graphic, graphemic description, and one that is founded in terminological transparency.
In place of a discussion on the choice of graphemes in the Croatian linguistic norm, all relevant quotation marks and single quotation marks are evaluated by seven criteria (orthographic tradition and continuity, frequency, transparency, legibility, typographic aesthetics, computational acceptance, and distinctiveness), and three normative models are suggested for the Croatian graphemic standard for quotation marks.
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2016. Metodologija pravopisne standardizacije u hrvatskome jeziku [The methodology of the orthographic standardization in the Croatian language]. In: Metodologija i primjena lingvističkih istraživanja. Zbornik radova s međunarodnoga znanstvenoga skupa Hrvatskoga društva za primijenjenu lingvistiku održanoga od 24. do 26. travnja 2015. u Zadru. [Croatian Applied Linguistics Society's conference proceedings. An international conference held on 24-26 April 2015 in Zadar, Croatia]. Edited by Sanda Lucija Udier and Kristina Cergol Kovačević. ISBN 978-953-7963-43-9. Zagreb: srednja europa, pp. 19–34
A study on the methodology of orthographic standardization in selected European languages serves as background for a larger picture of the Croatian language situation and can possibly also point to certain solutions when considering the methodology of the orthographic standardization in the Croatian language.
Although a very broad categorization can be established for European orthographic methodologies, six methodological perspectives of orthographic standardization stand out for the present status of the Croatian language with regard to standardization (initiative, authority, acceptance, engagement scope, establishing standard model and authorship), which are insufficiently discussed in domestic literature.
It is stressed that the regulation of orthographic policy by means of laws has a positive impact on the stability of the orthographic standard and that it is not possible to implement high-quality orthographic standardization without a language authority in the community.
It is concluded that the establishment of a regulatory center and the creation of fundamental documents on orthographic planning (the green and the white book, development strategy, orthography dispute resolution, and other) could have a crucial impact on further successful development of Croatian orthographic standardization methodology.
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2015. Jezičnopovijesni i računalnojezikoslovni aspekti opisa i normiranja pisanja vodoravnih crta u hrvatskome jeziku [Language Historical and Computational Linguistic Aspects of the Descriptions and Norming of Dashes in the Croatian Language]. In: Rasprave Instituta za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje 41/1(2015). ISSN 1331-6745. Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje, pp. 127–161
This paper describes one of two punctuation marks (dashes and quotation marks) that deviate significantly from the relationship of one character per (Unicode) semantic value. While quotation marks have multiple graphemes (eight, specifically) for one semantic value, dashes typically have two graphemes (a short and a long dash) that cover as many as 11 (Unicode and Latin) dash characters. While the criteria for line length has typically been highly prominent in orthography manuals, it is only found in the presented categorization on the sixth hierarchical level.
Aside from two new Unicode dash characters (the two-em dash and three-em dash, Unicode 6.1, January 2012) having been standardized in the meantime, differing methodology and a comparison of the linguistic-historical and computational linguistic aspects have spread awareness of dash characters in the Croatian language as described in Portada-Stojanov (2009). A categorization is presented that is sensitive to the dichotomy of graphic representation and meaning that divides all dash characters into five hierarchical levels. Among the 44 Unicode horizontal and unbroken dash characters, a division into type, time, functionality, direction, and line height has resulted in 11 contemporary Latin alphabetic horizontal central characters, among which each language written in the Latin alphabet chooses its own. The semantic value and usage of all Unicode dash graphemes has been described.
On the other hand, the paper also described dash characters from the perspective of Croatian historical linguistics and orthography. In comparison to the rich repository of standardized Unicode dash characters, it has been shown that orthographic standards are significantly reductive. Orthographic norming of dash characters is divided into two periods and three groups, depending on their graphemic form (the first and second generation of orthography manuals) and terminology (the pre-standard phase and the two standard norming schools, depending on the acceptance of the terminological pairs “spojnica – crtica” and “crtica – crta”).
The historical linguistic and computational linguistic comparative research and the contrastive analysis of the Unicode standardization of dash characters with traditional orthographic descriptions of dash characters was intended to highlight (i) the need for a broader, interdisciplinary approach to describing written linguistic practice, (ii) the insufficiency of descriptions in primary and secondary school orthography manuals for modern writing, and (iii) the insufficiency of the existing Croatian codification of both terminological schools. In order for orthography manuals to be called scholarly, it is claimed that computer writing should be better described, and that a differentiation between characters and graphemes should be introduced on the level of punctuation. One of the areas in which orthography manuals could bring themselves technologically up to date is the issue of the writing of compound words at the beginning of a broken line, and the paper provides eight reasons to abandon the current tradition.
Analysis has shown that it would be justified to base dash codification on three or four characters, which reduces the 11 Latin Unicode characters to basic groups of dashes – the short, medium, long, and very long dashes, referred to as c1, c2, c3 and c4.
Goranka Blagus Bartolec, Lana Hudeček, Kristian Lewis, Milica Mihaljević, Ermina Ramadanović, Matea Birtić, Jurica Budja, Barbara Kovačević, Ivana Matas Ivanković, Željko Jozić, Alen Milković, Irena Miloš, Tomislav Stojanov, Kristina Štrkalj Despot. 2013. Hrvatski pravopis [Croatian Orthography Manual]. Main editor Željko Jozić. ISBN 978-953-7967-04-8. Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2013. Uvod u (X)HTML i CSS [Introduction to (X)HTML and CSS]. Skripta [Coursebook]. Priručnici Tehničkoga veleučilišta u Zagrebu / Manualia Polytechnici Studiorum Zagrabiensis. Zagreb: Tehničko veleučilište u Zagrebu. ISBN 978-953-7048-27-3, 96 pp.
Stojanov, Tomislav; Vučić, Zoran. 2012. Korpusnojezikoslovna obradba tekstova Sportskih novosti. N-gramsko modeliranje dohvaćanja podataka i vizualizacija [Corpus linguistic processing of 'Sportske novosti' texts. Information retrieval of N-gram models and visualization]. In: Filologija 59(2012). Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. ISSN 0449-363X, pp. 103–129
Portada, Tomislav; Stojanov, Tomislav. 2009. O vodoravnim crticama u hrvatskome pravopisu [On Horizontal Dashes in Croatian Orthography]. In: Filologija 52(2009). Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. ISSN 0449-363X, pp. 91–120
This paper is a review on terminology and usage of three horizontal dashes (-, – and —) in Croatian orthographies and orthographic papers. Considerable contradictions and inconsistencies have been spotted in both terminology and practical use of horizontal dashes. The new Croatian Orthography, recently published by Matrix Croatica and written by Badurina, Marković and Mićanović, contributed even more to the confusion by prescribing solutions that deviate significantly from orthographic tradition and typographic practice. Practical, orthographic, and computational linguistic arguments have been stated and elaborated against these solutions. The authors propose terms spojnica, en-crtica and em-crtica for characters -, – and —. Two possible directions in the development of orthographic rules and usage have been pointed out. The authors have also drawn attention to some other inconsistencies in orthography which should be systematized and standardized.
Ćavar, Damir; Jazbec, Ivo-Pavao; Stojanov, Tomislav. 2009. CroMo – Morphological Analysis for Standard Croatian and its Synchronic and Diachronic Dialects and Variants. In: Finite-State Methods and Natural Language Processing - Post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop FSMNLP 2008. Jakub Piskorski, Bruce Watson, Anssi Yli-Jyrä (eds.). Italy: IOS Press. ISBN 978-1-58603-975-2, pp. 183–190
Stojanov, Tomislav; Lewis, Kristian; Portada, Tomislav. 2009. Rad na Struni na primjeru hrvatskoga kemijskoga nazivlja [Research on Struna Project in a Context of Croatian Chemical Terminology]. In: Terminologija in sodobna terminografija : zbornik [conference proceedings]. Nina Ledinek, Mojca Žagar, Marjeta Humar (eds.). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU. ISBN: 978-961-254-158-3, pp. 181–195
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2007. Načela određivanja sintaktičkih jedinica i analiza glagolne skupine [Principles of Syntactic Units Determination and Analysis of Verbal Phrase]. In: Sintaktičke kategorije. Zbornik radova znanstvenoga skupa s međunarodnim sudjelovanjem 'Hrvatski sintaktički dani'. [Proceedings at the conference held on 11-12 May 2006]. Branko Kuna (ed.). Osijek – Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Osijeku i Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje. ISBN 978-953-6456-76-5, pp. 227–239
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2006. Saussureova sintagmatika i pitanje naziva jedinica sintakse skupine [De Saussure's Syntagmatics and the Phrase-Structure Syntax Terminology Issue]. In: Filologija 46-47(2006), Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. ISSN 0449-363X, pp. 271–284
Dovedan, Zdravko; Stojanov, Tomislav; Vučković, Kristina. 2005. Syntax Analysis Directed by Transition and Action Table. In: Informacijske znanosti u procesu promjena. Jadranka Lasić-Lazić (ed.). Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet, Zavod za informacijske studije Odsjeka za informacijske znanosti, pp. 169–179
Vučković, Kristina; Ujdur, Ante; Stojanov, Tomislav; Dovedan, Zdravko. 2005. Interaktivni dječji slikovni rječnik [Interactive Children's Picture Dictionary]. In: Proceedings of the 28th International Convention MIPRO 2005: Computers in Education. Marina Čičin-Šain, Ivana Turčić Prstačić, Pavle Dragojlović (eds.). Rijeka: Hrvatska udruga za informacijsku i komunikacijsku tehnologiju, elektroniku i mikroelektroniku - MIPRO, pp. 55–59
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2002. Razredba zamjenica i zamjeničnih pridjeva, te pravila sintaktičke povratnosti [Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives Classification, and Syntactic Reflexiveness Rule]. In: Suvremena lingvistika 51-52(2002), Zagreb: Hrvatsko filološko društvo. ISSN 0586-0296, pp. 227–243
Stojanov, Tomislav. 2002. Formalna morfosintaktička i sintaktička obrada rečenica hrvatskoga jezika [Formal Morphosyntactic and Syntactic Processing of Croatian Language Sentences]. In: Zbornik radova 'Težakovi dani' [Proceedings]. Slavko Tkalac, Jadranka Lasić-Lazić (eds.). Zagreb: Zavod za informacijske studije Odsjeka za informacijske znanosti. ISBN 953-175-182-X, pp. 135–147
Tepeš, Božidar; Mateljan, Vladimir; Stojanov, Tomislav; Tepeš, Tomislav; Kesić, Bogdana. 2001. Database of Grammatical Sentences of Croatian Language. In: Conference Proceedings 23rd Int. Conf. Information Technology Interfaces ITI 2001, June 19-22, 2001. Kalpić, Damir (ed.). Pula: Srce. ISBN 953-96769-3-2, pp. 423–432
Stojanov, Tomislav. 1995. Korpus priloga na -ice u hrvatskome jeziku [Corpus of the -ice adverbs in Croatian]. Unpublished paper awarded by the Dean's award of the University of Zagreb in 1995.
Hrvatski u školi